Tag Archives: adhd brain

Causes of ADHD

Possible Causes of ADHD in Children Explored




THE CAUSES OF ADHD IN CHILDREN ARE NOT BLACK AND WHITE.

There are so many variables and interactions between every factors. It is very difficult to tease out the exact causes of ADHD. But one thing for sure is that there is no one simple solution to the treating ADHD. That is the reason why many children with ADHD do not response well to the medications. Most ADHD medications target only a few biochemical pathways to improve the symptoms. However, it does not completely remove the root cause of the problem, whatever it is.

A simple analogy to illustrate the idea of medication for ADHD is stepping on a piece of broken glass. You can take loads of pain killer to numb the pain on your foot, but as long as the piece of broken glass remains in your foot, the pain remains.

Same in the case of ADHD, you can try all kinds of ADHD medication. But if the root cause remains, and so will the symptoms. Unfortunately, the root cause of ADHD is not as clear-cut or obvious as the piece of broken glass. Some detective work is required in more cases along with some experimentation.

Children with ADHD are known to have nutrient deficiencies such as omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, zinc and selenium and others.

Premature or underdeveloped Prefrontal Cortex

I remember going to a parent orientation at my daughter’s school prior to start of the school year. And one of the topics discussed was that at 7th grade, children’s prefrontal cortex is still not fully matured. I found this really interesting. I completely did not expect to hear “prefrontal cortex” as a topic during a 7th grade parent orientation. Well, of course, this is one of the most prestigious school in Honolulu and dealing with demanding parents, the school has to be ready for the parents’ high expectations. The school is also very into child development.

At the same, I have to wonder are we, as a society, over-diagnosing ADHD without giving any considerations for the child’s natural personality.

The other day I saw a boy for his picky eating behaviors. According to parents, he prefers to eat only junk foods – chicken nuggets, pizzas, hot dogs, etc. Well, you got the idea. His parents also told me the child is recently diagnosed with ADHD. During the visit, dad raised his voice at the 5-year-old for him to sit still, and complaining that he did not take his medication this morning. To me, the child seems like a normal 5-year-old boy squirming in a chair. He did not get out of his chair during the 30-minute visit or run around the room like other children with ADHD that I’ve seen before. I feel sorry for the boy being scolded by the dad for just squirming in the chair, and being labeled as ADHD because he has super strict parents.

Related article: ADHD Brain

Environmental Toxins

Environmental toxins are everywhere. We live in a giant pool of pollution everyday. The air is filled with smoke, fog, smog. And if you live in Hawaii like me, you’ll also have “vog” (a special blend of volcanic smoke and fog). Just thinking of it takes my breath away (as in my asthma symptoms). Water contaminated with industrial waste and sewer. Food tinted with toxic preservatives, colorings, flavorings. If your child takes medications, that’s another form of chemical assault. This is tough enough environment for anyone with great detoxification and immune system. Children with autism, ADHD and other developmental disorders have a generally below par immunity and detoxification system. Thus, these environmental toxins affect them more than others.

Don’t forget these children are exposed to many toxic chemicals even before they take their first breath outside their mother’s protective bodies. In fact, one of the risk factor of ADHD is prenatal tobacco and pesticide exposure. Children born to mother who smokes or exposed to tobacco smoke are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD.

Don’t forget mercury and lead poisoning also increase chance of ADHD and other comordities. Buildings constructed before 1978 maybe contaminated with lead paints and pipes. Check with your local planning permit branch or check with your condominium association to find out more.

Food Allergy and Sensitivity

Children with ADHD frequently have hidden food allergy or intolerance. The reason why I use the word “hidden” is because these allergies or intolerances are difficult to identify. Most standard blood tests for allergy do not detect these. Symptoms of these hidden allergies do not show up right away. Days later when symptoms finally do show, it’s too late to figure out which food you’ve consumed had triggered the symptoms.

With some probing, investigation and mom’s instinct, you may be able to figure out a few culprit.

My daughter has always complained of stomachache, and frequently she’ll ask questions like “Mommy, what does it mean when your poopy is green?” Hmmm…She loves milk, but the most she’ll drink is 3 cups, that’s all. But I started to notice that every time she has 3 cups of milk, she’ll complain that she bottom hurts and burns. So I cut out milk from her diet. Of course, she is not happy about that. She loves eating Oreo cookies with milk. She would ask for cow’s milk after we took it out from her diet. Finally, she admits that her belly does not hurt as much as when she stopped drinking milk.

With milk out of the picture, she is still having stomachache despite taking probiotics diligently for years. My instinct tells me she is sensitive to gluten too, just like me. She loves noodles in any form and shapes, except rice noodle, the one that is the gluten-free. She’s not big sandwich person. I still have not remove gluten completely from her diet to see any changes. But I know it will.

Related article: Gluten and ADHD Connection

You see how the child with ADHD started with less than perfect detoxification system, sensitivity to food due to poor immunity, a premature prefrontal cortex that is not regulating well, and, of course, the not so bright nutritional status because of limited food choice. All the child needs is the environmental flip to tip things over, which manifests itself as hyperactivity, difficulty focusing, impulsiveness, learning disability. You name it.

The way I look at it is that everything we’re born with we cannot change. And just because you are born with disadvantage on your side, does not mean that is your destiny. There are still many things you can do to change your fate. There are ways to improve your child’s nutritional status, ways to improve immunity and detoxification, and avoid toxins as much as possible by choosing organic products. All you need is an open-minded and explore what works for your child. You are your child’s advocate, not your child’s teacher or your child’s pediatrician.

Related article: ADHD Symptoms or Something Else?




How magnesium calms the ADHD brain?

How Magnesium Calms the ADHD Brain




Magnesium (chemical symbol Mg) is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions in the human body. It is essential in the proper functioning of the muscular and nervous system.

Mg is well-known for relaxing the mind through its role in neurotransmitter synthesis, such as serotonin. Serotonin plays significant role is calming the mind and provoking a sense of well-being. Low level of serotonin is associated with depression, mood swings and irritability.

Some signs and symptoms of Mg deficiency includes sensitivity to loud noises, insomnia, anxiety, hyperactivity, restlessness, panic attacks, salt craving, and both carbohydrate craving and carbohydrate intolerance.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

Magnesium is needed to activate the enzyme, delta-6-desaturase, that converts dietary alpha-linolenic acids (ALA) into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main components of brain cell membranes. It is suggested that children, especially boys, has a deficiency in delta-6-desaturase, which leads to DHA deficiency frequently seen in children with ADHD. Supplementing with Mg may help faciliate conversion from ALA to DHA by increasing activity of delta-6-desaturase.

Magnesium calms the nerves by interfering with the release of acetylcholine (an excitatory neurotransmitter)at the neuromuscular synaptic junctions.

Mg also interferes with the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla, thus, calming the nervous system. Psychological reactions and/or environmental stressors, such as excessive noises, intense light, etc may increase blood catecholamine levels. Catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and adrenaline, are neurotransmitters responsible for the fight-or-flight response, by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, getting the body into an excited state.

Magnesium is needed for the production of myelin sheaths that insulate the nerve cells in the nervous system. The myelin sheaths act in a similar manner as the plastic casing on electrical wires. This protective layer prevents nerve impulses from misfiring, which can result in seizures.

Mg activates glutamine synthetase, which is responsible for the combination of glutamate with ammonia to yield glutamine. Glutamine synthetase is present predominantly in the brain, kidneys, and liver.

In the brain, glutamine synthetase participates in the metabolic regulation of glutamate, the removal of brain ammonia, uptake and release of neurotransmitters. In the brain where glutamate is used as a neurotransmitter, glutamine synthetase is not subject to the same regulatory system as in kidneys and liver. Brain glutamine synthetase is found mainly in astrocytes, which plays important roles in regulating neurotransmitters and synaptic transimissions, and ion concentration in nerve cells, and maintaining maintaining the blood-brain-barrier.

Mg deficiency is associated with the impulsiveness and hyperactivity in ADHD more so than the inattentiveness. Lack of Mg is related to muscle spasms and over-excitability. However, the combination of vitamin B6 and Mg complement each other to tackle both the hyperactivity and inattentiveness of ADHD.

Mg and vitamin B6 has a co-dependent relationship. While treatment with Mg is most effective when combined with vitamin B6, which boosts absorption of magnesium into the cells, Mg is required for the proper functioning of alkaline phosphatase, which facilitates the absorption of vitamin B6 into body tissues.

Vitamin B6 is required in both the synthesis of serotonin from tryptophan and activation of kynurenase that breaks down by-product of tryptophan metabolism. Both vitamin B6 and magnesium are essential for the enzyme kynurenase to breaks down kynurenine, a waste product of tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway. Deficiency in vitamin B6 may result in a suboptimal functioning of kynurinase, resulting in high levels of kynurenine, which are associated with disturbed balance of brain chemicals, such as serotonin, gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA). An imbalance of brain chemicals or neurotransmitters, especially gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine, is associated with behaviors seen in ADHD and other cor-morbid conditions.

FOOD SOURCES

Mg is plentiful in green vegetables, cereal, grain, nuts, legumes, and chocolate. Food processing and cooking may deplete magnesium content. Typical western diet composed of mainly processed foods, which obviously is not able to supply the needed Mg. Furthermore, the metabolic stress from the foods further put the body’s detoxification system in overdrive trying to rid the body of the harmful substances in processed foods.

A diet high in fat, phosphate and calcium may reduce Mg absorption.

SUPPLEMENTATION

Oral Mg supplements are available in various salt preparations. Multivitamins and minerals generally contain Mg oxide, which is less bulky and inexpensive to manufacture. However, it is not soluble in water, which means it is poorly absorbed by the body. Mg hydroxide in milk of magnesia is another example of insoluble Mg salt.

Magnesium aspartate, chloride, lactate, citrate and glycinate are more soluble, thus, easily absorbed in the intestines. Magnesium taurinate, glycinate or elemental Mg is the preferred form that is less likely to cause diarrhea.

SUGGESTED DAILY DOSING

The typical dose for children is 200 mg of Mg and 10 to 20 mg of vitamin B6.

Age 3 years and under: 40-80mg

Age 4-6 years: 120mg

Age 7-10 years: 170mg

Adolescent and adult male: 270-400mg

Adolescent and adult female 280-300mg




Vitamin B6 and ADHD Brain

Vitamin B6 and ADHD




Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin and one of the vitamin B’s that make up the complex. It is found in one of three naturally occurring forms – pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and three respective 5′-phosphate esters. Pyridoxal 5′ phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5′ phosphate (PMP) are the active coenzyme forms of B6 that participate in amino acids metabolism.

Inside the body, the naturally occurring glycosylated forms of B6 in fruits and vegetables have to be converted by the liver to the active form the body needs. People with impaired liver function, celiac disease, older adults, and children with autism and/or ADHD have decreased ability in converting vitamin B6 into its active forms. Therefore, supplementing B6 in its active form is more appropriate and readily available for use by the body.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

PLP is necessary for the conversion of DOPA into dopamine, a neurotransmitter, and conversion of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, to GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. It is also involved in the decarboxylation of SAM to propylamine.

ADHD is believed to be the result of decreased dopamine activity. Low dopamine level in the frontal lobes is associated with decline in cognitive functions, such as memory, attention and problem-solving skills, while deficient of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex is associated with attention deficit disorder.

Related article: ADHD Brain

Dopamine plays a major role in the brain system that is responsible for reward-driven learning, and inhibition control. Every type of reward that has been studied increases the level of dopamine transmission in the brain, and a variety of highly addictive drugs, including stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, act directly on the dopamine system. This is the same mechanism that caffeine works.

The other mechanism that B6 helps with ADHD symptoms is its use in combination with magnesium. Magnesium and vitamin B6 has a co-dependent relationship. While B6 boosts absorption of magnesium into the cells, magnesium is needed for the proper functioning of alkaline phosphatase, which helps the absorption of B6 into body tissues.

Signs and symptoms of magnesium deficiency includes sensitivity to loud noises, insomnia, anxiety, hyperactivity, restlessness, panic attacks, salt craving, and both carbohydrate craving and carbohydrate intolerance. Children with ADHD are believed to have lower levels of magnesium inside their blood cells. Since B6 helps improve blood cell level of magnesium, supplementing magnesium along with B6 will help with ADHD symptoms.

SUPPLEMENTATION

A study of young children with average age 6-7 years old showed improvement in behaviors, such as inattention, aggressiveness and hyperactivity with treatment with magnesium and B6. The amounts used were 6 mg/kg/day magnesium and 0.6mg/kg/day B6 – roughly 100-200 mg of magnesium and around 10-20 mg of B6.

Children with ADHD and/or autism have lower conversion rates to PLP, the active form of vitamin B6. Therefore, supplementing with PLP is more appropriate and readily available for use by the body.




Vitamin B12 and Your Brain

Vitamin B12 and ADHD Brain




Vitamin B12 (B12) is a water-soluble vitamin with key role in facilitating normal functioning of the brain, nervous system, and formation of blood cells. It is involves in DNA synthesis and regulation, and also fatty acid synthesis and energy production.

There are several forms of vitamin B12 – cyanocobalamin is the synthetic form, and methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin are the physiological or active form. Cyanocobalamin does not occur in nature. It is commonly found in supplements due to its stability and cheaper cost of manufacturing. Theoretically, cyanocobalamine is readily converted to the active forms, methylcobalamine and/or adenosylcobalamin in the body.

VITAMIN B12 AND ADHD

B12 helps with ADHD symptoms through it’s involvement in many of the brain functions, especially in the production and maintenance of the myelin sheath (the protective coating on nerve cells), essential fatty acid metabolism and energy production.

B12 is involved in the synthesis and integrity of the myelin sheath that covers all nerve cells. Think of the plastic casing on electrical wires. These myelin sheath serve the same purpose. Vitamin B12 is the cofactor for the enzymes, L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase.

L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase needs adenosylcobalamin to convert L-methylmalonyl-CoA (MMA) to succinyl-CoA. If this reaction is not working well, too much MMA will result. Too much MMA will make the myelin sheath unstable or not effective in doing its job. The extra MMA may also be added in place of fatty acids, such as omega-3 fatty acid, into myelin sheath. This will result in fragile myelin sheath that is not able to support normal brain functions. The precise mechanism(s) are not fully undertood at this time.

B12 also affects in the myelin formation process in another way. Methylcobalamin is a cofactor of methionine synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Our body can also obtain methionine through diet. Our body needs methionine to make S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe), which is needed for methylation of myelin sheath phospholipids. Methylation is the transfer of the “methyl” group. Methycobalamin provides the methyl group for the transfer. That is how methylcobalamin is involved here. Although our body does not need B12 to make SAMe, methionine synthase helps to provide additional methionine to boost SAMe production. SAMe is also involved in the production of certain neurotransmitters and catecholamines, which help with mood.

BODY STORES

Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare because the liver can store several years’ worth of B12. However, deficiency does happen. Certain medical conditions and/or medication may interfere with absorption or increased it’s metabolism in the body. The total amount of B12 stored in body is bout 2–5 mg in adults. Around 50% of this is stored in the liver.

SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

Deficiency is usually the result of poor intestinal absorption due to GI surgeries and/or GI disorders, or inadequate dietary intake, such as vegetarian or vegan diet, which restrict animal products. Occasionally, certain medication may increase its metabolism in the body.

Signs and symptoms include weakness or fatigue, light-headedness, rapid heartbeat and breathing, pale skin, sore tongue, easy bruising or bleeding such as bleeding gums, stomachache, weight loss, and diarrhea or constipation.

B12 deficiency may result in megaloblastic anemia, which is due to an defective red blood cell production. The resultant red blood cells are larger than normal, which make is difficult to transport nutrients due to size constraint.

Other signs and symptoms are tingling or numbness in fingers and toes, difficulty walking, mood changes or depression, memory loss, disorientation, and dementia, which are results of nerves damages from vitamin B12 deficiency.

FOOD SOURCES

Neither plants nor animals can produce B12. Only bacteria have the enzymes required for its synthesis. Animals are good sources of B12 is because of the bacteria living in the intestines, which makes the vitamin.

Vitamin B12 is found in any foods that come from animals, such as fish and shellfish, meat (especially liver, where the vitamin is stored), poultry, eggs, dairy products. The body absorbs B12 from animal sources better. Plant foods are not considered to be reliable sources of B12.

Vegans, people who do not eat any animal products including eggs and dairy, are more likely to develop B12 deficiency because of their restrictive diets. Ovo-lacto-vegetarians usually consume enough B12 through eggs and dairy products. Vegans obtain their B12 from dietary supplements and/or fortified foods, such as fortified breakfast cereals, fortified soy products, fortified energy bars, and Brewer’s yeast.

SUPPLEMENTATION

Cyanocobalamin is the most common form of B12 found in supplements. It contains about 2% of cyanide or 20 micrograms cyanide in a 1 mg cyanocobalamin tab. This amount may seem minute. However, children with ADHD, as you have read so far, have an inefficient detoxification system. Even minute amount of cyanide may accumulate over time, causing neural damages.

One of the functions of B12 is methyl donation. Supplementation with cyanocobalamin would not serve this purpose. In fact it would need donation of methyl group in the body to be converted to the active form.

Sublingual and spray methylcobalamin are supposedly much easier to absorb because these routes bypass the intestines, which can be an issue for people with GI problems. Besies methylcobalamin is the active form, which means the body can put it to use right away without any further conversion. Besides, children with ADHD just seem to have very different metabolic requirements.

Methylcobalamin supplements are usually more expensive and available mainly in health food stores. Despite the cost and probably a little extra drive for some, it is still a better choice not only because it is the active, but it is also a “cleaner” form. The methylcobalamin supplement you find in health food stores usually are free of additives, preservatives, artificial colorings, artificial sweeteners, etc. So you are definitely paying for quality for your money.

DOSING

General recommendation of B12 is between 0.4 to 2.4 mcg (micro-grams) daily depending on age. Generally, for the purpose of treating ADHD, you may start with 1,000 mcg. Toxicity is rare since Vitamin B12 is water-soluble, which means our body can easily get rid of the extra.

Couple years ago, I developed tingling sensation on my hands and feet after some medication adjustment. After doing some research, I discovered that the tingling is related to B vitamins deficiency. I started with B-complex, then later added B12. The tingling disappeared, but I was not falling asleep at night. Then I realized it’s the high dose of B12 I was taking at night. That’s what keeping me up at night. And that’s also when I realized the power of B12 vitamin. It does give you an energy boost, but without the hyper feeling of caffeine.

Now I take a 2,500mcg B12 vitamin tablet in the morning. While I started taking the B12 vitamin, I also noticed that I am less irritable and anxious.

My daughter takes a 1,000mcg tablet daily before school to help her focus. She also takes 1.5mg melatonin at night to help with her sleep. Interestingly, after taking the melatonin, she told me that her brain feels clearer and she can organize her thoughts better.




PhosphatidylCholine Pathway

Phosphatidylcholine for ADHD

What is Phosphatidylcholine?

That’s a mouthful. It sounds like something fancy. But it’s not. It’s actually pretty common.

Most of us who are not vegan or vegetarian ingest about 3 to 6 grams of lecithin a day. The term lecithin and phosphatidylcholine are used interchangeably because phosphatidylcholine makes up most of lecithin. Choline is another component of lecithin. Choline is a component of phosphatidylcholine, which is a component of lecithin.

Phosphatidylcholine and Brain function

Phosphatidylcholine makes up a big part of cell membranes. In order to make phosphatidylcholine, our body also needs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), uridine, and choline.The reason why there is such an interest in phoshpatidylcholine is because the body uses it to make acetylcholine, a brain chemical involves in memory, and phosphatidylcholine is shown to be able to increase acetylcholine level. PC is thought to benefit brain conditions, such as memory loss, Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety, manic-depressive disorders, and a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia.

Unfortunately, the current research findings do not consistently support the role of phosphatidylcholine in helping with cognitive function, and that supplementation with PC does not seem to result in any dramatic effects on mental cognitive abilities. The benefit on brain function from taking lecithin or PC supplements is only minimal.

As mentioned earlier, a typical person consumes about 3 to 6 grams of lecithin a day, which means the risk of phosphatidylcholine deficiency is low. However, because each human being are unique genetically, there are always a few person who are difficulty biochemically in making adequate amounts of phosphatidylcholine from scratch. Certainly, these individuals would benefit from PC supplementation.

Don’t give up yet…

I have a colleague at work who swears that phosphatidylcholine works wonders on his 2 year old son, who was diagnosed with autism. I know, I know. He’s too young to be diagnosed with autism. But he does have all the signs – speech delay, SUPER intelligent. I know this boy’s developmental pediatrician. This boy knows the difference between trapezium and rhombus at a tender age of 1 year old. According to dad, he recognizes most of the alphabet (English alphabets) and sight-read a couple words.

Anyway, my colleague told me since starting PC, his son is able to communicate more and able to recognize kids of his age and interact with them. However, the oral aversion is still a problem. Did I mention this child is also on the gluten-free casein-free diet?
My point here is studies only tell you what’s most likely to happen to the general population. Until you try it out yourself, you’ll never know if you’re the responding group or the non-responding group.

Phosphatidylcholine supplementation is also recommended in the book “What’s Eating Your Child?: The Hidden Connection Between Food and Childhood Ailments” by Kelly Dorfman, MS, LND for sensory processing disorder and speech apraxia.

Supplementation

Start with getting PC from food sources first. Try eggs, soy, and meats. Vegetables, fruits and grains contain very little lecithin. If you plan to take the supplement instead, stay with a lower dose for your child, something like three grams a day or less

Other Uses of PC

Phosphatidylcholine is also used for treating hepatitis, eczema, gallbladder disease, circulation problems, high cholesterol, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS); for improving the effectiveness of kidney dialysis; for boosting the immune system; and for preventing aging.

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Understanding the ADHD Brain




The ADHD Brain

How is the ADHD brain different from a normal brain?

The conventional medical views attention deficit hyperactive disorder as a biological disease or disorder caused by dysfunctions in the brain - specifically, a deficiency in key neurotransmitters.

This is the basis or rationale for using ADHD medications that supposedly alters the brain neurochemistry to reduce ADHD symptoms.
A medical doctor will probably tell you that the ADHD brain is deficient in two neurotransmitters - dopamine and norepinephrine, which are chemical signals that the brain uses to communicate between brain cells.

Dopamine is associated with mood, risk taking, impulsivity, and reward. Norepinephrine is believed to moderate attention, arousal, and mood.
It has been shown that defects in receptors genes and transporter proteins of neurotransmitters play an important role in creating the abnormal functions of an ADHD brain.

If there is a problem within the process of getting these neurotransmitters to their destination, the brain is unable to function optimally.
Researchers also discovered that children with ADHD typically have smaller prefrontal lobe (10% smaller). This is the portion of the brain responsible for reasoning, planning, and solving problems. This may be the cause of inattentive behavior, impulsivity, and over-stimulation.
There’s also research showing that a problem with the electrical impulses needed to release the neurotransmitters may be to blame.
Alternative health care practitioners may further explain the deficiency in neurotransmitters is due to problems, such as brain hemisphericity, delayed brain development and sensory integrative disorder.

Brain hemisphericity

Researchers have discovered that children with ADHD have right hemispheres that are weaker than the left. The normal brain can generally activate the right and left hemispheres of the brain effortlessly. The left brain tends to be the accelerator of the body, whereas the right brain is the "brake" system. If the right brain is the "brakes" of the body and the brakes cannot be applied, we, literally, have a runaway nervous system, which manifests itself as allergies, overactive immune system, hypersensitivity reactions and emotional instabilities.
Related article: Hemisphericity explained eloquently in this article.

A Delayed Development of Brain Structure and Function

An imaging study done by researchers at the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has revealed that the brain of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a three year delay in maturity, and the pattern of development remains normal as other children without ADHD.

This basically means the ADHD brain’s development is behind actual age. So a ten years old child demonstrating ADHD behaviors might have parts of his brain functioning at the level of a six year old, which is why he or she has the attention span and impulsivity of a six-year-old.
The delay in ADHD was most prominent in regions at the front of the brain’s outer mantle (cortex), which important for the ability to control thinking, attention and planning. 

Other than the delayed maturation in the ADHD brain, the brains of children with or without ADHD showed a similar back-to-front wave of brain maturation with different areas maturing at different times.

Problems with sensory processing and integration

As a result of brain hemisphericity and brain developmental delay, a child with ADHD tends to have issues processing sensory information. They either feel too much (hyperactive) or don't feel enough (hypoactive). This explains the fidgeting and hyperfocusness with electronic stimulation.

In summary, the ADHD brain basically is an underdeveloped brain, just like any other developmental delays that we see all the time.
Some babies walk early, some walk later. Some speak early, and some need more help with speaking. My daughter had speech delay as toddler. She did not have her first word until 18 months of age. And her first word is “apple”, her favorite food.

She needed speech therapy for the first few years of her life and her intelligence, obviously.

The varying degree of maturation rate in the ADHD brain may present problems with functions and skills. Some maybe corrected with drugs to manipulate the neurotransmitters, different parenting skills, brain remodeling therapies, such as yoga, biofeedback, Luminosity or Brain Gym.
Knowing that ADHD is more of a collective term for symptoms rather than an actual diagnosis, we should focus treatment on correcting the underlying cause.

We can fix this with good food and nutrition and some supplements.

First of all we need a good healthy balanced diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which is an importance component of brain tissue.

Proper nutrition also ensure adequate energy to support brain function, growth and development.

Other dietary supplements that boost neurotransmitters and increase blood flow to the brain, such as ginseng and gingko biloba, may be included.

Also remember, ADHD symptoms can also be triggered by many other environmental factors, life stressors, nutrient deficiencies and biochemical imbalances, and the ADHD brain is just the manifestation of the real underlying causes.